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Silbernagl. Atlas of physiology. 6e. 2008.

1 Fundamentals and Cell Physiology
The Body:an Open System with an Internal Environment
Control and Regulation
The Cell
Transport In,Through,and Between Cells
Passive Transport by Means of Diffusion
Osmosis, Filtration,and Convection
Active Transport
Cell Migration
Electrical Membrane Potentials and Ion Channels
Role of Ca2+ in Cell Regulation
Energy Production and Metabolism
2 Nerve and Muscle, Physical Work
Neuron Structure and Function
Resting Membrane Potential
Action Potential
Propagation of Action Potentials in Nerve Fiber
Artificial Stimulation of Nerve Cells
Synaptic Transmission
Motor End-plate
Motility and Muscle Types
Motor Unit of Skeletal Muscle
Contractile Apparatus of Striated Muscle
Contraction of Striated Muscle
Mechanical Features of Skeletal Muscle
Smooth Muscle
Energy Supply for Muscle Contraction
Physical Work
Physical Fitness and Training
3 Autonomic Nervous System (ANS)
Organization of the Autonomic Nervous System
Acetylcholine and Cholinergic Transmission
Catecholamine, Adrenergic Transmission and Adrenoceptors
Adrenal Medulla
Non-cholinergic, Non-adrenergic Transmitters
4 Blood
Composition and Function of Blood
Iron Metabolism and Erythropoiesis
Flow Properties of Blood
Plasma,Ion Distribution
Immune System
Hypersensitivity Reactions (Allergies)
Blood Groups
Fibrinolysis and Thromboprotection
5 Respiration
Lung Function, Respiration
Mechanics of Breathing
Purification of Respiratory Air
Artificial Respiration
Lung Volumes and their Measurement
Dead Space,Residual Volume,and Airway Resistance
Lung–Chest Pressure—Volume Curve,Respiratory Work
Surface Tension,Surfactant
Dynamic Lung Function Tests
Pulmonary Gas Exchange
Pulmonary Blood Flow, Ventilation–Perfusion Ratio
CO2 Transport in Blood
CO2 Binding in Blood
CO2 in Cerebrospinal Fluid
Binding and Transport of O2 in Blood
Internal (Tissue) Respiration, Hypoxia
Respiratory Control and Stimulation
Effects of Diving on Respiration
Effects of High Altitude on Respiration
Oxygen Toxicity
6 Acid–Base Homeostasis
pH, pH Buffers, Acid–Base Balance
Bicarbonate/Carbon Dioxide Buffer
Acidosis and Alkalosis
Assessment of Acid–Base Status
7 Kidneys, Salt, and Water Balance
Kidney Structure and Function
Renal Circulation
Glomerular Filtration and Clearance
Transport Processes at the Nephron
Reabsorption of Organic Substances
Excretion of Organic Substances
Reabsorption of Na+ and Cl–
Reabsorption of Water, Formation of Concentrated Urine
Body Fluid Homeostasis
Salt and Water Regulation
Diuresis and Diuretics
Disturbances of Salt and Water Homeostasis
The Kidney and Acid–Base Balance
Reabsorption and Excretion of Phosphate,Ca2+ and Mg2+
Potassium Balance
Tubuloglomerular Feedback, Renin–Angiotensin System
8 Cardiovascular System
Blood Vessels and Blood Flow
Cardiac Cycle
Cardiac Impulse Generation and Conduction
Electrocardiogram (ECG)
Excitation in Electrolyte Disturbances
Cardiac Arrhythmias
Ventricular Pressure–Volume Relationships
Cardiac Work and Cardiac Power
Regulation of Stroke Volume
Venous Return
Arterial Blood Pressure
Endothelial Exchange Processes
Myocardial Oxygen Supply
Regulation of the Circulation
Circulatory Shock
Fetal and Neonatal Circulation
9 Thermal Balance and Thermoregulation
Thermal Balance
10 Nutrition and Digestion
Energy Metabolism and Calorimetry
Energy Homeostasis and Body Weight
Gastrointestinal(GI) Tract:Overview, Immune Defense and Blood Flow
Neural and Hormonal Integration
Stomach Structure and Motility
Gastric Juice
Small Intestinal Function
Excretory Liver Function—Bilirubin
Lipid Digestion
Lipid Distribution and Storage
Digestion and Absorption of Carbohydrates and Protein
Vitamin Absorption
Water and Mineral Absorption
Large Intestine,Defecation,Feces
11 Hormones and Reproduction
Integrative Systems of the Body
Humoral Signals:Control and Effects
Cellular Transmission of Signals from Extracellular Messengers
Hypothalamic–Pituitary System
Carbohydrate Metabolism and Pancreatic Hormones
Thyroid Hormones
Calcium and Phosphate Metabolism
Biosynthesis of Steroid Hormones
Adrenal Cortex and Glucocorticoid Synthesis
Oogenesis and the Menstrual Cycle
Hormonal Control of the Menstrual Cycle
Prolactin and Oxytocin
Hormonal Control of Pregnancy and Birth
Androgens and Testicular Function
Sexual Response,Intercourse and Fertilization
12 Central Nervous System and Senses
Motor System
Hypothalamus,Limbic System
Cerebral Cortex,Electroencephalogram(EEG)
Sleep–WakeCycle,Circadian Rhythms
Consciousness,Memory, Language
Sense of Taste
Sense of Smell
Sense of Balance
Eye Structure,Tear Fluid,Aqueous Humor
Optical Apparatus of the Eye
Visual Acuity, Photosensors
Adaptation of the Eye to Different Light Intensities
Retinal Processing of Visual Stimuli
Color Vision
Visual Field,Visual Pathway, Central Processing of Visual Stimuli
Eye Movements,Stereoscopic Vision,Depth Perception
Physical Principles of Sound—Sound Stimulus and Perception
Conduction of Sound,Sound Sensors
Central Processing of Acoustic Information
Voice and Speech
13 Appendix
Dimensions and Units
Powers and Logarithms
Graphic Representation of Data
The Greek Alphabet
Reference Values in Physiology
Important Equations in Physiology
Further Reading